Testing Process entirely differ frm company to company ....
As far my Current organization is concerned the process compromised of..
1.R given a FDD/SRS/FRS (Functional Design Document/System Requirement Specification/Functional requirement Specification) to study very carefully as its all abt d application Understanding b4 it is developed.
2.Creating DoU (Document of Understanding) and sending it to the concerned manager for further clarification.
3.Test case creation based on that document n Screen shot.
4.When build is ready start Testing n executing those Test cases.
5.If some variation is found in Build n document we intimate it to the manager n manager to client n get it verified at there end.
6.Logging BUGS into the concerned Tool as we were logging in Mantis.
7.get all those BUGS closed and hence testing continues for each product ..
1) Requirement Given by my Manager by oral, testing team will make it as document
2) I will test and raise a issues in JIRA in next built they will fix the issues, Testing team recheck and close the bugs
3) For critical issues we will communicate to DEV TEAM
4) In my company following Agile methodology
If u dnt mind i wud like to correct u as mentioned above r not Testing Methodologies bt its all r Application Developement Methodologies.N Testing is a part of all Application development Methodologies..