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What is the exact difference between Keyword driven framework and Data Driven framework?

Can anyone proide me exact difference between Data Driven and Keyword driven framework in Test Automation. If possible provide sample scripts for each.

Thanks,
Aarya

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The Data-Driven Testing Framework.
In this Framework , while Test case logic resides in Test Scripts, the Test Data is separated and kept outside the Test Scripts.Test Data is read from the external files (Excel Files, Text Files, CSV Files, ODBC Sources, DAO Objects, ADO Objects) and are loaded into the variables inside the Test Script. Variables are used both for Input values and for Verification values. Test Scripts themselves are prepared either using Linear Scripting or Test Library Framework.
Ex: Developing the Flight Reservation Login script using this method will involve two steps.
Step 1) Create a Test - Data file which could be Excel , CSV , or any other database source.
AgentName
Password
Jimmy
Mercury
Tina
MERCURY
Bill
MerCURY
Step 2) Develop Test Script and make references to your Test- Data source.
SystemUtil.Run "flight4a.exe","","","open"
Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Agent Name:").Set DataTable("AgentName", dtGlobalSheet)
Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Password:").Set DataTable("Password", dtGlobalSheet)
Dialog("Login").WinButton("OK").Click
'Check Flight Reservation Window has loaded
Window("Flight Reservation").Check CheckPoint("Flight Reservation")
**Note “dtGlobalSheet” is the default excel sheet provided by QTP.
Advantages
* Changes to the Test Scripts do not affect the Test Data
Test Cases can be executed with multiple Sets of Data
* A Variety of Test Scenarios can be executed by just varying the Test Data in the External Data File
DisAdvantages
* More time is needed to plan and prepare both Test Scripts and Test Data
The Keyword-Driven or Table-Driven Testing Framework.
The Keyword-Driven or Table-Driven framework requires the development of data tables and keywords, independent of the test automation tool used to execute them . Tests can be designed with or without the Application. In a keyword-driven test, the functionality of the application-under-test is documented in a table as well as in step-by-step instructions for each test.
There are 3 basis components of a Keyword Driven Framework viz. Keyword , Application Map , Component Function.
What is a Keyword ?
Keyword is an Action that can be performed on a GUI Component. Ex . For GUI Component Textbox some Keywords ( Action) would be InputText, VerifyValue, VerifyProperty and so on.
What is Application Map?
An Application Map Provides Named References for GUI Components. Application Maps are nothing but “Object Repositry’
What is Component Function?
Component Functions are those functions that actively manipulate or interrogate GUI component. An example of a function would be click on web button with all error handling , enter data in a Web Edit with all error handling. Component functions could be application dependent or independent.
Ex: To understand Keyword View lets take the same example. It invovles 2 steps
Step 1: Creating Data Table (Different from Test-Data Table created in Data Driven Framework). This Data Table contains Action to be performed on GUI Objects and correspoding arguments if any. Each row respresents one Test Step.
Object
(Application MAP)
Action
(KEYWORDS)
Argument
WinEdit(Agent Name)
Set
Crazyprincess
WinEdit(Password)
Set
Mercury
WinButton(OK)
Click
Window(Flight Reservation)
Verify
Exists
Step 2: Writing Code in the form of Component Functions.
Once you've created your data table(s), you simply write a program or a set of scripts that reads in each step, executes the step based on the keyword contained the Action field, performs error checking, and logs any relevant information. This program or set of scripts would look similar to the pseudo code below:
Function main()
{
Call ConnectTable(Name of the Table) { //Calling Function for connecting to the table.
while (Call TableParser() != -1) //Calling function for Parsing and extracting values from the table.
{
Pass values to appropriate COMPONENT functions. Like Set(Object Name , Argument) ex. Set( Agent Name , crazyprincess).
}
}
Call CloseConnection() //Function for Closing connection after all the operation has been performed.
} //End of main
Thats all to Keyword Driven Framework.
The advantage of Keyword Driven Framework is that the Keywords are re-usable. To understand this consider you want to verify login operation for a Website say YAHOO MAIL. The table will look like this -
Object
(APPLICATION MAP)
Action
(KEYWORD)
Argument
WebEdit(UserName)
Set
abc@yahoo.com This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
WebEdit(Password)
Set
xxxxx
WebButton(OK)
Click
Window(Yahoo Mail)
Verify
Loads
If you observe in this case the Keywords Set , Click , Verify remain the same for which corresponding component functions are already developed. All you need to do is change the Application Mapping (Object Repository) from earlier Flight Reservation to Yahoo Mail , with change in argument values and the same script will work!
Advantages
* Provides high code re-usability
* Test Tool Independent
* Independent of Application Under Test, same script works for AUT (with some limitations)
* Tests can be designed with or without AUT
Disadvantages
* Initial investment being pretty high, the benefits of this can only be realized if the application is considerably big and the test scripts are to be maintained for quite a few years.
* High Automation expertise is required to create the Keyword Driven Framework.

NOTE : Even though QTP advertises itself as KeyWord Driven Framework, you can not achieve complete test tool and application idependence using QTP.
cool answer!!!

thanks for sharing this answer with an example

Keyword driven testing is nothing but a tree view of keywords. It displays list of objects and their names. It divides much of the programming work from the actual test steps.Data driven testing deals with data table or data source.If want to run the one script with multiple sets of data that time we prefer Data Driven Test.

PFA

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