This is an approach that is most valuable when there are no or poor details and when time is extremely restricted.
Characteristics of exploratory testing:
Exploratory testing is a hands-on approach where testers are involved in minimum amount of planning and maximum level of test execution.
Test logging is embraced as test execution is performed, documentation of the key parts of what is tested, any defects discovered and any contemplations about conceivable further testing.
The test design and test execution exercises are performed in parallel normally without formally reporting the test conditions, test cases or test scripts. This does not imply that other, more formal testing procedures won’t be utilized. For instance, the tester may choose to use BVA yet will thoroughly consider and test the most essential limit values without fundamentally writing them down. A few notes will be written amid the exploratory-testing session, so that a report can be created thereafter.
The planning includes the formation of a test sanction, a short revelation of the scope of a short (1 to 2 hour) time-boxed test effort, the goals and conceivable ways to deal with be utilized.
It can likewise serve to complement one other, more formal testing, setting up more prominent trust in the software. Along these lines, exploratory testing can be utilized as a check on the formal test process by guaranteeing that the most genuine defects have been discovered.
Exploratory testing is portrayed in [Kaner, 2002] and [Copeland, 2003] Other methods for testing in an exploratory way (‘attacks’) are depicted in [Whittaker, 2002].
Pros of exploratory testing:
After introductory testing, most bugs are found by some kind of exploratory testing. This can be shown legitimately by expressing that programs that pass certain tests tend to keep on passing similar tests and will probably fail different tests or situations that are yet to be investigated.
Less planning is required, vital bugs are discovered quickly, and the approach has a tendency to be more mentally stimulating to execute than scripted tests.
Testers can utilize deductive thinking in light of past outcomes to manage their future testing on-the-fly. They don’t need to finish a present arrangement of scripted tests before concentrating in on or proceeding onward to investigating a more target rich environment. This likewise quickens bug recognition when utilized shrewdly.
Cons of exploratory testing:
Free-form exploratory testing ideas, when returned to, are probably not going to be performed in the very same way. This can be an advantage in the event that it is vital to discover new errors or a con in the event that it is more essential to repeat particular details of the prior tests. This can be controlled with particular instructions to the tester or by creating automated tests where doable, suitable, and vital (and preferably as near the unit level as could be expected under the circumstances).
Tests created and performed on-the-fly can’t be surveyed ahead of time and along these lines avoid errors in code and the test cases. It can be hard to demonstrate precisely which tests have been run.