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testing comes under QA or QC/

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Quality Assurance
• A task force selects and installs a system development methodology.
• On a random basis application systems are audited after implementation to determine whether or not the system met standards.
• A measurement system is established to measure the effectiveness of system and unit testing.
• QA is sometimes called quality control over quality control, because it evaluates whether quality control is working

Quality Control
• The conduct of an inspection of source code is a Quality control activity
• A computer operator verifies that the jobs to be run that day have been run.
• A computer programmer conducts unit tests to validate that the program works.
QA: A planned and systematic set of activities necessary to provide adequate confidence that requirements are properly established and products or services conform to specified requirements.
An activity that establishes and evaluates the processes to produce the products.
Helps establish processes.
Sets up measurements programs to evaluate processes.
Identifies weaknesses in processes and improves them.
QA is the responsibility of the entire team.
Prevents the introduction of issues or defects
QA evaluates whether or not quality control is working for the primary purpose of determining whether or not there is a weakness in the process.
QA improves the process that is applied to multiple products that will ever be produced by a process.
QA personnel should not perform quality control unless doing it to validate quality control is working.
QC: The process by which product quality is compared with applicable standards; and the action taken when non conformance is detected.
An activity which verifies if the product meets pre-defined standards.
Implements the process.
Verifies if specific attribute(s) are in a specific product or service
Identifies defects for the primary purpose of correcting defects.
QC is the responsibility of the tester.
Detects, reports and corrects defects
QC evaluates if the application is working for the primary purpose of determining if there is a flaw / defect in the functionality.
QC improves the development of a specific product or service.
QC personnel may perform quality assurance tasks if and when required.

Nimesh T.
Nice Information on the topic. Good Work.
Very Nice Understanding

Software quality assurance (SQA) consists of a means of monitoring the software engineering processes and methods used to ensure quality. The methods by which this is accomplished are many and varied, and may include ensuring conformance to one or more standards, such as ISO 9000 or a model such as CMMI.

SQA encompasses the entire software development process, which includes processes such as requirements definition, software design, coding, source code control, code reviews, change management, configuration management, testing, release management, and product integration. SQA is organized into goals, commitments, abilities, activities, measurements, and verifications.

The American Society for Quality offers a Certified Software Quality Engineer (CSQE) certification with exams held a minimum of twice a year.

^ Nielsen, David CMM and Project Quality Management

Quality control is a process employed to ensure a certain level of quality in a product or service. It may include whatever actions a business deems necessary to provide for the control and verification of certain characteristics of a product or service. The basic goal of quality control is to ensure that the products, services, or processes provided meet specific requirements and are dependable, satisfactory, and fiscally sound.

Essentially, quality control involves the examination of a product, service, or process for certain minimum levels of quality. The goal of a quality control team is to identify products or services that do not meet a company’s specified standards of quality. If a problem is identified, the job of a quality control team or professional may involve stopping production temporarily. Depending on the particular service or product, as well as the type of problem identified, production or implementation may not cease entirely.

Software testing is any activity aimed at evaluating an attribute or capability of a program or system and determining that it meets its required results. Although crucial to software quality and widely deployed by programmers and testers, software testing still remains an art, due to limited understanding of the principles of software. The difficulty in software testing stems from the complexity of software: we can not completely test a program with moderate complexity. Testing is more than just debugging. The purpose of testing can be quality assurance, verification and validation, or reliability estimation. Testing can be used as a generic metric as well. Correctness testing and reliability testing are two major areas of testing. Software testing is a trade-off between budget, time and quality.
Some excellent responses here about two related disciplines that are often confused. To summarise the position:

• QA is defect prevention
• QC is defect detection and correction
• Testing is the “detection” half of QC

However, “preventative testing” may be seen as a QA activity in at least two respects:

• It can prevent the promulgation of defects from requirements to designs, and from designs to code.
• In “test-first” mode, it can train authors of specifications / designs / code in reducing their defect rates.

Sadly, most testers working in “QA” organisations are only able to do (the detection half of) QC, severely crippling their usefulness to the rest of the organisation. Such is the way of the world …

-- D

Hello buddy,

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As per practices of quality assurance services, Quality Assurance(QA) is a verification process which ensures that desired quality level of product is achieved while each phase of its designing before releasing it to the market.

Quality Control(QC) is not a process but a validation technique by following which bugs/defects/faults are found in the product as per the set standards.

Testing is a process of executing complete product features to detect bugs so that they can be fixed before delivering it to the end users. Testing can be considered as a subset of Quality Control as it ensures whether product runs the way it is expected and designed for.

For conclusion, Quality Assurance can be said as preventive action, however, Quality Control can be said corrective measure and testing is considered as subset or part of QC.


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